The Scottish champions arrived in Edinburgh on Sunday having gone 585 days without defeat since St Johnstone claimed a 2-1 victory back on May 2016.
While Celtic has suffered a clutch of European defeats since Rodgers' appointment, this is the first time the former Liverpool boss has lost a match in a domestic competition during his reign at the club.
Celtic's previous record unbeaten run was 62 matches, set from 1915-1917.
Sixteen-year-old Harry Cochrane, then former Rangers striker Kyle Lafferty, drilled home first-half goals, with Manuel Milinkovic striking twice after the break.
"But also congratulations to my players, it (the unbeaten run) is a phenomenal achievement".
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"Of course it's a sore one when you are beaten like that", Rodgers said, "but they (Celtic's players) can hold their heads up".
'Now is not the time to look back and see what we have achieved, we have to look forward and start winning again'.
"They'll go into the history books and we'll reflect on the game tomorrow and look to find the solutions to be better in our next game".
Celtic are just two points clear of Aberdeen now with Partick Thistle at Parkhead on Wednesday night as their game-in-hand.
"We hit the reset button and look to get three points in our next game".
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'Probably all of the goals come from individual mistakes and we absolutely need to be better on that one.
"Now we focus on these last games through to the end of the year".
And he's confident the Hoops will very quickly go back on a winning run as they seek to maintain their grip on every domestic trophy.
"All credit to Celtic, to go this far without losing a match in the league or cups in Scotland is quite remarkable".
"Early on we had a couple of chances from midfield and I felt we had some space to play football but after the first goal we didn't manage to create and we didn't win the duels. It's over now and we need to get ready to go again".
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